IMPROVED MILBOND-TX® “IN-VIVO AFLATOXIN B1 BINDING CAPABILITY”
In the previous issue of Milwhite’s Journal the in-vitro aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) binding ability of Improved Milbond TX® (IMTX) was discussed. This invitro research was conducted by Dr. David Ledoux and his research team at the University of Missouri. The data reported showed that IMTX had great potential as a mycotoxin binder in the animal since it had extremely high in-vitro binding ability. Their in-vitro data showed that in solutions with pH of 3, 5, 7 and 9, IMTX was able to bind 100% of the AFB1 concentration added to each solution. Following the in-vitro study Dr. Ledoux and his team conducted an in-vivo study with commercial broilers. This present issue of Milwhite’s Journal discusses the in-vivo data collected with broilers showing that adding 1% IMTX to the diet was able to efficiently bind AFB1 in the digestive tract so that all of the negative effects associated with feeding 4 ppm AFB1 to the broiler were eliminated and broiler performance was totally restored.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND DATA COLLECTED
A total of 120 day-old male broilers were weighed, wing-banded and assigned to pens in stainless steel chick batteries. There were 5 replicate pens of 6 chicks each in each of 4 dietary treatments offered adlibitum throughout the entire 21 day experimental period. Treatments were: 1) basal corn-soybean meal diet (no AFB1 or IMTX); 2) basal diet + 1% IMTX; 3) basal diet + 4 ppm AFB1; and 4) basal diet + 1% IMTX + 4 ppm AFB1. On day 21, 10 chicks from each treatment (2/pen) were bled by cardiac puncture and serum chemistry profiles determined. Also, 15 chicks from each treatment (3/pen) were killed by cervical dislocation and various organs weighed and tissue samples taken and processed for histological examination. All birds were examined for gross pathological signs due to feeding the AFB1 or resulting from possible nutritional deficiencies due to consuming the IMTX.
Only 5 chicks died during the entire 21-day experimental period and the researchers did not attribute these deaths directly to any particular dietary treatment. The average body weight and feed intake of chicks consuming the basal diet supplemented with 1% IMTX were no different than the body weight and feed intake of chicks consuming the basal diet. However, average body weight and feed intake of chicks fed the basal diet containing 4 ppm AFB1 were significantly less (P < 0.0001) than those chicks fed the un-supplemented basal diet. When IMTX was supplemented to the diet containing 4 ppm AFB1 the average chick body weight and feed consumption were totally restored and chick performance was numerically better than that of chicks fed the basal diet alone. Data showed that chicks fed the combination AFB1/IMTX diet vs basal diet consumed similar amounts of feed (1000 vs 964 g), grew as well (796 vs 779 g) and were as efficient in feed conversion (1.26 vs 1.24 g:g). Feeding AFB1 alone resulted in heavier organ weights (liver, heart, kidney, proventriculus, and pancreas) compared to those organs from chicks fed the basal diet alone. The livers of chicks fed AFB1 alone were pale and enlarged with rounded margins. Chicks fed the diet containing IMTX alone and the IMTX/AFB1 diet had organ weights similar to those of chicks fed the basal diet alone. In this study, the average weights of the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and gizzard were not affected by any dietary treatment. Feeding AFB1 alone decreased (P < 0.05) the serum chemistry profile values (i.e., calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, glucose, albumin, total protein and globulin) compared to the profile values of chicks fed the basal diet and the IMTX diet alone. When IMTX was added to the diet containing AFB1, with the exception of glucose and cholesterol, all of the other serum chemistry profile values were restored to those of chicks fed the basal diet.
Upon gross examination of the chick organs no nutritional related deficiencies could be found in any of the organs from chicks fed any of the treatments. With the exception of liver and kidney, in general, there were no obvious microscopic lesions in any of the other tissues. Chicks fed AFB1 alone had moderate to severe fatty infiltration of the liver and significant kidney pathology with thickening of the glomerular capillary basement membrane. No kidney pathology was observed in chicks fed the AFB1/IMTX diet.
Compared to the body weight and feed intake of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, adding 4 ppm AFB1 to the diet resulted in a 25% decrease in body weight, a 22% decrease in feed intake, increased organ weights and liver and kidney damage as evidenced by histological examination. Adding 1% IMTX to the diet containing the AFB1 completely restored chick body weight and feed intake. This demonstrated the successful ability of 1% IMTX to bind up to 4 ppm AFB1 in the digestive tract of broilers, thus eliminating all of the negative effects that AFB1 was shown to have on broiler performance. The binding and elimination of AFB1 from the digestive tract by IMTX also resulted in restoring normal organ weights, normal serum chemistry profiles and prevented liver and kidney damage. No histological damage to tissues and no observable nutritional deficiencies resulted from adding IMTX alone to the diet. In summary, the data collected in this 21-day invivo study with broiler chicks indicated that feeding 1% IMTX alone and in a diet containing up to 4 ppm AFB1 is safe and is effective in preventing the toxic effects on broiler performance that are commonly associated with aflatoxicosis.
Note: A complete description of the in-vitro and in-vivo experiments conducted at the University of Missouri and the data collected in the experiments can be found in the referenced publication located in the footnote below. The information presented in this issue of Milwhite’s Journal was compiled by Dr. Orlando Osuna, Director of Health Science at Milwhite, Inc. and Dr. Richard Miles, Professor Emeritus, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Ledoux, D.R., G.E. Rottinghaus, A.J. Bermudez and M. Alonso-Debolt. 1999. Efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poultry Science. 78:204-210.